From the newly discovered planets to the great scientific achievements in DNA research, here are some of the most remarkable scientific discoveries of the year.
The most remarkable scientific discoveries of 2018 ..
The whale ear wax reveals its stress levels
Research conducted by scientists and published in Nature Communications last November showed that earwax whales during her life revealed levels of cortisol that she produced. The results showed that whales were producing higher levels of cortisol during the years when whaling began (in the early 1900s and 1960s, and during the Second World War because of submarines and battleships).
Discover lakes on Mars
A survey published in the journal "Science" that radar surveys of the surface of the Red Planet revealed the existence of a lake. Reports showed that the Martian surface contained a lot of water that somehow disappeared. More interesting, scientists believe that this lake may be conducive to life, because its environment is similar to the Antarctic environment.
Landing the InSight vehicle on Mars
The fall of the InSight on Mars last month is one of the most important scientific events of the year. The task of the vehicle is limited to studying the seismic activity of Mars, which will allow scientists to understand the thickness of the crust of the planet and its size and temperature.
Clean the Pacific from garbage
The Dutch non-profit organization The Ocean Cleanup has launched its project to clean the ocean of plastic garbage. Although the project is still in the testing phase, it aims to collect plastic pieces through a U-shaped tool and discard them before they are broken by the sun in the sea and become harmful to marine life.
The number of animals shrank dramatically
According to the WWF Living Planet report of 2018, the average number of vertebrate groups declined by 60% between 1970 and 2014. Many species of animals have been extinct over the past 100 years due to overfishing and excessive fishing.
Increased numbers of mountain gorillas
Mountain gorillas, an endangered species of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), are growing in places where they live in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda and Uganda. Thanks to government efforts and animal veterinary care.
Insects are on their way to disappear
Although we feel alienated towards insects, their disappearance from the planet will be catastrophic! A study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences has revealed that the biomass of arthropods, including insects and spiders, is decreasing by as much as 60 times in the rainforest of Puerto Rico and large parts of the world.
Discovery of evidence of a ninth planet in the solar system
In 2015, scientists identified an object called TG387 moving in an unusual elliptic orbit around the sun. Many evidence points to the presence of a huge invisible mass orbiting the sun, and scientists continue to look for facts to make sure the ninth planet is in the solar system.
Design of the first DNA
Chinese scientist He Jiankui said he used a gene-editing technology called CRISPR to change the DNA of two embryos and then implanted them into the mother's womb. The world claimed that the two children were born in good health.
However, scientists from around the world have been alarmed by this announcement as inaccurate and can not be used on human embryos as they are still in the process of being studied. This process also requires strict control to be tested in order to reduce serious, non-treatable genetic diseases.
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